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Ex: I love a man. That man is handsome

=> I loved a man who is handsome.

I. Đại từ quan hệ

   1. Who

- Dùng để thay thế cho người, là chủ ngữ trong mệnh đề cung cấp thông tin

- ĐTQH đứng ngay sau từu mà nó bổ nghĩa cho.

Ex: This doctor is famous. He is from Canada.

=> This doctor who is from Canada is famous.

    2. Whom

- Dùng để thay thế cho người, là tân ngữ trong mệnh đề phụ

Ex: This man is my father. I respect him most.

=> This man whom I respect most is my father.

    3. Which

- Dùng để thay thế cho vật, giữ vai trò là CN và tân ngữ trong câu.

Ex: - The gift is given by my boyfriend. It is priceless.

=> The gift which is given by my boyfriend is priceless

      -  My boyfriend gave me a gift. It was priceless.

=> The gift which my boyfriend gave me was priceless.

- Dùng để thay thế cho cả mệnh đề, thường đi kèm dấu phẩy.

Ex: He called me last night. This made me happy.

=> He called me last night, which made me happy.

  4.  Whose

-  Thay thế cho TTSH,  theo sau là một danh từ.

Ex: That man is an artist. I don’t remember his name.

=> That man whose name I don’t remember is an artist.

    5. Where

- Sử dụng đại từ quan hệ khi có : giới từ + địa điểm , here, there

- Luôn theo sau là một mệnh đề.

- Where = in which/  at which

Ex:  We will eat at the restaurant. Tom recommends it.

=> We will eat at the restaurant where Tom recommends.

    6. When

- Sử dụng khi thấy có: giới từ + thời gian,

- Luôn theo sau là một mệnh đề

- When= on which/ at which

Ex: 7.05 is the time. We must leave then.

=> 7.05 is the time when we must leave.

   7. Why

- Dùng đễ diễn tả lí do, thường đi sau: reason/ for the reason

Ex: This is the reason why I left early.

8. That

a.  Khi muốn thay thế cho cả người và vật

Ex: I saw a lot of horse and people. They went to the market.

=> I saw a lot of horse and people that went to the market.

b. Khi đi với so sánh cấp cao nhất hoặc các định ngữ là số thứ tự.

Ex: - This is the best novel.  I have ever read it.

=> This is the best novel that I have ever read.

      - The first sight has made a lasting impression on him. It is the Great Wall.

=> The first sight that was caught at the Great Wall has made a lasting impression on him.

c. Khi đi với các đại từ bất định ( some, any, no, every) hoặc  các từ all, little, much, few.

Ex: There are few books in this book store.  You can read them.

=> There are few books that you can read in this book store.

d.  Trong cấu trúc nhấn mạnh : It is / was _______ that

Ex: It’s the girl that changes his life.

II. Một số lưu ý khi sử dụng MĐQH

  1. Đại từ quan hệ phải đứng ngay sau từ mà nó thay thế.

Ex: The doctor is famous. You met him yesterday.

=> The doctor whom you met yesterday is famous.

Not: The doctor is famous whom you met yesterday.

   2. Không được lược bỏ giời từ ( nếu có) . Tuy nhiên ta có thể thay đổi vị trí của giới từ như sau:

Ex: Mrs. Brown  is a nice teacher. We studied with her last semester.

=> Mrs. Brown whom we studied with last semester is a nice teacher.

=> Mrs. Brown with whom we studied last semester is a nice teacher.

   3. Khi có giới từ trong MĐQH thì ta chỉ sử dụng whom/which

Ex: - Most of the doors at which he knocked seemed to be bolted ( khóa) .

       - Mrs. Brown with whom we studied last semester is a nice teacher.

III. MĐQH xác định và MĐQH ko xác định

MĐQH xác định

MĐQH không xác định

- Dùng để xác định cho DT đứng trước đó.




-Nếu không có MĐQH thì DT ko rõ nghĩa, bắt buộc phải có MĐQH.


-Không cần dùng dấu phẩy



- Có thể sử dụng “ that “ thay thế cho which, whom , who.



Ex: The man who cut my hair yesterday is so nice.

- Dùng để bổ sung ý nghĩa cho DT đứng trước ( chỉ mang tính chất bổ sung thông tin).  DT thường là DT riêng, DT đã xác  định ( this, that, these, those, TTSH)


- Không nhất thiết phải có MĐQH



- Luôn đứng giữa 2 dấu phẩy



- Tuyệt đối không sử dụng “ that”




Ex: John, who cut my hair yesterday, is so nice


IV. Rút gọn MĐQH.

   Có 2 trường hợp rút gọn MĐQH: 

   1. ĐTQH đóng vai trò CN.


* Còn lại sẽ là khác thì.

1.They live in the house that was built in 1890.

2.The papers that are on the table belong to Patrica.

3. The house which is being built now belongs to Mary.

4.The man who talked to the policeman is my uncle.


       Chủ động ( S+V+O)        

 Bị động ( S+ be + PII+ O)

Cùng thì

- bỏ ĐTQH

- V=V- ing


Ex: The papers being on the table belong Patrica

- bỏ ĐTQH

- V=  PII


Ex: The house built now belongs to Mary

Khác thì

- bỏ ĐTQH

-V= Having + PII


Ex: The man having talked to the policeman is my uncle

- bỏ ĐTQH

- V= Having + Been PII


Ex: They live in a house having built in 1890


   2. ĐTQH đóng vai trò làm tân ngữ.

- Chỉ sử dụng khi trước ĐTQH không có dấu phẩy, không có giới từ.

- Ta chỉ cần lược bỏ ĐTQH. ( ngoại trừ  “whose” )

Ex: - The car which my brother has bought is so expensive

=> The car my brother has bought is so expensive.

      - The man  whom I respect most is my father.

=> The man I respect most is my father.

    * Note: Khi MĐQH theo sau là DT có bổ ngữ là TT so sánh cấp cao nhất, hoặc “ the only, the last , the first, … ( Số thứ tự)” thi ta dùng cụm từ nguyên mẫu To V để thay thế.

Ex: He was the last man who left the house.

=> He was the last man to leave the house


BÀI TẬP I: Điền đại từ quan hệ vào chỗ trống khi cần

1. Let me see all the letters _______ you have written.

2. Is there any one ________ can help me do this?

3. Mr. Brown, _________ is only 34, is the director of this company.

4. I know a place __________ roses grow in abundance.

5. It was the nurse ________ told me to come in.

6. The teacher with ________, we studied last year no longer teaches in our school.

7. They showed me the hospital ________ buildings had been destroyed by US bombings.

8. We saw many soldiers and tanks ______ were moving to the front.

9. Dr. Fleming, _______ discovered penicillin, was awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1945.

10. He joined the political party _______ was in power.

11. Love, ________ is a wonderful feeling, comes to everyone at some time in his life.

12. Freedom is something for _______ millions have given their lives.

13. It is easy to find faults in people ________ we dislike.

14. The really happy people are those _______ enjoy their daily work.

15. We must find a time _______ we can meet and a place _______ we can talk.

BÀI TẬP II. Sử dụng mệnh đề quan hệ để kết hợp các câu sau

1. A man answered the phone. He told me that you were out

2. A waitress served us. She was very impolite and impatient.

3. Some boys were arrested. They have now been released.

4. She showed me a photograph of her son. Her son is a policeman.

5. Tom’s father goes swimming every day. He is 78.

6. We decided not to swim in the sea. The sea looked rather dirty.

7. The new stadium will be opened next month. The stadium holds 90,000 people.

8. John is one of my closest friends. I have known John for 8 years.

9. That man over there is an artist. I don’t remember his name.

10. Opposite our house there is a nice park. There are some beautiful trees in this park.

11. The storm caused a lot of damage. Nobody had been expecting the storm.

12. The postman was late this morning. The postman is nearly always on time.

13. We often go to visit our friends in Bristol. Bristol is only 30 miles away.

14. Mr Edwards has gone into hospitals for some tests. His health hasn’t been good recently.

15. Jack looks much nicer without his beard. His beard made him look much older.

16. I went to see the doctor. The doctor told  me to rest for a few days.

17. Thank you for your letter. I was very happy to get your letter.

18. A friend of mine helped me to get a job. His father is the manager ofa company.

19. Next weekend, I am going to Glassgow. My sister lives in Glassgow.

20. The population of London is now falling. London was once the largest city in the world

21. I looked up at the moon. The moon was very bright that evening.

22. We spent a pleasant day by the lake. We had a picnic by the lake.

23. There were a lot of people at the party. I had met only a few of them before.

24. She is the most intelligent woman. I’ve ever met this woman.

25. This doctor is famous. You visited him yesterday.

26. These children are orphans. She is taking care of these children.

27. The two young men are not good persons. You are acquainted with them.

28. My father goes swimming everyday. You met him this morning.

29. The man is my father. I respect this man most.

30. The man is my father. I respect his opinion most.

31. Mary and Margaret are twins. You met them yesterday.

32. I’ll introduce you to the man. His support is necessary for your project.

33. The middle-aged man is the director. My father is talking to him.

34. The boy is my cousin. You make fun of him.

35. The student is from china. He sits next to me.

36. I thanked the woman. This woman had helped me.

37. The professor is excellent. I am taking his course.

38. Mr. Smith said he was too busy to speak to me. I had come to see him.

39. I saw a lot of people and horses. They went to market.

40. Tom has three sisters. All of them are married.

41. I recently went back to Paris. It is still as beautiful as a pearl.

42. I recently went back to Paris. I was born in Paris nearly 50 years ago.

43. Do you know the music? It is being played on the radio.

44. You didn’t tell us the reason. We have to cut down our daily expenses for that reason.

45. The day was rainy. She left on that day.

46. That man is an artist. I don’t remember the man’s name.

47. That car belongs to Dr. Clark. Its engine is very good.

48. You sent me a present. Thank you very much for it.

49. This is Mrs. Jones. Her son won the championship last year.

50. Rod Lee has won an Oscar. I know his sister.

51. Is this the style of hair? Your wife wants to have it.

52. A man answered the phone. He said Tom was out.

53. 7.05 is the time. My plane arrives then.

54. Max isn’t home yet. That worries me.

55. Do you know the building? The windows of the building are painted green.

BÀI TẬP III/ Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ

1. The couples who live in the house next door are both college professors.

2. Our solar system is in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way.

3. She is the only person who receives this scholarship.

4. They refused to carry out the plan which was worked out by the city council.

5. The people who were waiting for their children in the examination room looked nervous.

6. My brother was the man who realized the danger.

7. Do you know the woman who is coming towards us?

8. I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country.

9. The children who attend that school receive a good education.

10. The fence which surrounds our house is made of wood.

11. Be sure to follow the instructions that are given at the top of the page.

12. They live in the house that was built in 1890.

13. The papers that are on the table belong to Patrica.

14. The man who is talking to the policeman is my uncle.

15. The number of students who have been counted is quite high.

16. George is the man who was chosen to represent the committee at the convention.