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  • LESSON 14: CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN

LESSON 14: CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A/ LÝ THUYẾT

I. Câu điều kiện loại 0

- Câu điều kiện hiển nhiên, một sự thật luôn đúng. 

IF S + V ( s/es ) , S + V ( s/es) 

Ex: If you heat ice, it melts.

II. Câu điều kiện loại 1

- Câu điều kiện có khả năng xảy ra trong tương lai

IF S + V ( HTĐ) , S + will/shall/can/may/must + V

 Ex: If the weather is nice, I’ll go out with my friends

III. Câu điều kiện loại 2

- Câu điều kiện giả định, trái với tình huống ở hiện tại.

 IF  S +V ( QKĐ) , S + would/should/could/might/would have to + V

        * tobe : were                

Ex: If I understood problem, I would find the solution.

III. Câu điều kiện loại 3

- Câu giả định, trái với tình huống trong quá khứ.

IF S + V ( QKHT), S + would/should/could + have + PII

 Ex: If we had known your phone number, we could have contacted you.

IV. Câu điều kiện hỗn hợp

-Câu điều kiện diễn tả tình huống xảy ra ở trong quá khứ, tuy nhiên kết quả kéo dài và ảnh hưởng đến hiện tại.

IF S + had PII + O, S + would/should/could/might + V

Ex: If I hadn’t stayed late yesterday, I wouldn’t feel tired now.

 * NOTE: 

1. Có thể thay thế : If = Provided/ providing  ( that) = Supposed/ Supposing ( that) = As long as.

2. Unless = If not

Ex: If you don’t work hard, you won’t be successful

=> Unless you work hard, you won’t be successful.

V. Đảo ngữ trong câu điều kiện

1. Đảo ngữ câu điều kiện loại 0 và 1

Should + S +( not)  V+O, Main clause.

 Ex: If I don’t leave now, I’ll miss the flight

=> Shouldn’t I leave now, I’ll miss the flight

2. Đảo ngữ câu điều kiện loại 2

Were + S +(not) to V + O, Main clause

Ex: If John lived near his mother, he would visit her often.

=> Were John to live his mother, he would visit her often.

3. Đảo ngữ câu điều kiện loại 3 và hỗn hợp

Had + S +(not) PII + O, Main clause

Ex: If I hadn’t eaten too much, I wouldn’t have felt sick.

=> Hadn’t I eaten too much, I wouldn’t felt sick.

B/ BÀI TẬP THỰC HÀNH

BÀI TẬP I: Chia động từ trong ngoặc vào thì phù hợp

1. If he (eat)......................................... all that, he will be ill.

2. She could give us some advice if she (be)............................................ here now.

3. What (happen)........................................... if my parachute does not open?

4. The baby (wake)  ....................................... up if you spoke louder.  

5. If he had gotten one more mark, he (pass) ....................................... the exam.

6. If she (not get)................................. married young, she wouldn’t have had many children.

7. If I (know) ..............................................the answer, I would tell you.

8. You (not have)............................................. so many accidents if you drove more carefully.

9. If Peter (ask)............................................ me, I’ll help him with all my ability.

10. If she studied harder, she (get)................................................... better grades.

11. If I (be)................................. you, I (tell) ....................................... them the truth.

12. If you (do)..................................... as I told you, you (succeed).......................................

13. I (not go).......................................... to his house unless you go with me.

14. We could have a drink if it............................................. (not be) so late.       

15. Please don’t disturb him if he (be).............................................. busy.

16. If ice (be).................................. heavier than water, it (not float)...........................................

17. They would be glad if the rain (stop)………………………soon.

18. If Jack (come) ………………………….to my party, I would have danced with him.

19. It’s too bad Helen isn’t here. If she (be) ……………..here, she (know) …………………….. what to do.

20. Lee will go to a Disneyland if he (save) ………………………… enough money.

BÀI TẬP II: Sử dụng câu điều kiện để viết lại các tình huống sau

1. They don’t understand the problem. They won’t find a solution

2. Go right now or you’ll be late for the train.

3. Because you speak English unnaturally, they do not understand you.

4. We didnt know your phone number, so we could not contact you.

5. Because Simon doesnt live near his mother, he cant visit her often.

6. She didnt hurry, so she missed the train.

7. John is fat because he eats so many chips.

8. Bill never does anything if you don’t tell him what to do (Unless)

9. They don’t have enough time so they cannot do me a favour.

10. I must leave now, or I’ll miss the flight.

11. Hurry up, or we will be late for the exam.

12. Peter gets bad marks because he doesn’t prepare his lessons well

13. He doesn’t apply for the job because he doesn’t have enough qualifications.

14. We can’t buy this car because it is very expensive.

15. Unless he phones her immediately, he won’t get any information (If)

16. They don’t find out the remedy. The patient will die.

17. Susan felt sick because she ate 4 cream cakes.

18. If he hadn’t wasted too much time, he wouldn’t have failed in his examination. (Unless)

19. Rita is exhausted today because she didn’t get any sleep last night.

20. The flats are not clearly numbered, so it is very difficult to find anyone.